What is hypertension?
Reducing salt intake (to less than 5 g per day).
Increasing the proportion of fruits and vegetables in the diet
Getting regular physical activity
Cut back on tobacco use
Take candestar Reduce alcohol intake limiting the intake of food products with a high content of saturated fats
Eliminating or reducing the amount of trans fats in food products
Blood pressure is the force with which circulating blood acts on the arteries, the most important blood vessels in the body. Hypertension is characterized by an excessive increase in blood pressure.
Blood pressure is recorded as two indicators. The first index (systolic pressure) is the pressure in the blood vessels at the moment of contraction, or contraction, of the heart muscle. The second index (diastolic pressure) is the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart muscle relaxes between contractions.
Hypertension is diagnosed when the systolic blood pressure is equal to or greater than 140 mmHg on both days and/or the diastolic blood pressure is equal to or greater than 90 mmHg on both days, according to blood pressure measurements taken on two different days.
What are the risk factors for hypertension?
Controllable risk factors include unhealthy diets (excessive salt intake, high saturated fat and fat content, low fruit and vegetable intake), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and overweight and obesity.
Uncontrollable risk factors include the presence of hypertension in direct relatives, age over 65, and comorbidities such as diabetes or kidney disease.
What are the typical symptoms of hypertension?
Hypertension has been called the “silent killer. Most patients with hypertension are not even aware of the problem, because hypertension often gives no warning signs and is asymptomatic. That is why it is so important to measure blood pressure regularly.
If symptoms occur, they may include headaches in the early morning hours, nosebleeds, abnormal heart rhythm, impaired vision and ringing in the ears. Severe hypertension can cause weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, internal tension, chest pain and muscle tremors.
The only way to detect hypertension is to have your blood pressure measured by a medical professional. Measuring blood pressure is quick and painless. You can also measure your blood pressure yourself with automatic devices, but you should have it measured by a medical professional to assess your risk and related disorders.
What are the complications of uncontrolled hypertension?
In addition to other complications, hypertension can cause serious damage to the heart. Excessive pressure can cause arterial walls to lose their elasticity and reduce the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle. This increased pressure and decreased blood flow can cause:
chest pain, also called angina pectoris;
heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to the heart is blocked, causing heart muscle cells to die from oxygen deprivation. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the more serious the damage to the heart;
heart failure, in which the pumping function of the heart muscle cannot fully supply other vital organs with blood and oxygen;
Cardiac arrhythmias, which can lead to sudden death.
Hypertension can also cause strokes by severing or blocking the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the brain.
In addition, hypertension can cause kidney failure caused by kidney damage.
Why is hypertension a problem in low- and middle-income countries?
The prevalence of hypertension varies in different WHO regions and countries of different income categories. The prevalence of hypertension is highest in the WHO African Region (27%) and lowest in the Region of the Americas (18%).
Analysis of current trends indicates that the number of adults with hypertension has increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, predominantly in low- and middle-income countries. This risk is largely due to an increase in hypertension risk factors among these populations.
How can you reduce the burden of hypertension?
Lowering high blood pressure prevents heart attacks, strokes and kidney damage, as well as other health problems.
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How does the WHO respond to the problem of hypertension?
In 2016, to help governments prevent and manage cardiovascular disease, WHO and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Global Hearts initiative.
The HEARTS technical package, which is part of the five Global Hearts technical packages, is designed to improve the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, including the detection and control of hypertension. The five modules of the HEARTS technical package (healthy lifestyle counseling, evidence-based treatment protocols, access to essential medicines and technologies, team-based care and monitoring systems) provide a strategic approach to promoting cardiovascular health in a wide variety of countries worldwide.
Implementation of the HEARTS technical package has begun in 15 countries (Barbados, Bhutan, Colombia, Chile, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Morocco, Nepal, Philippines, Tajikistan, Thailand, and Vietnam). The first successes in this area have already been achieved through the widespread introduction of protocols in patient management, increased access to drugs and technology, and improved assessment of disease outcomes.