The article is devoted to basic first aid skills. You will learn what to do in case of bleeding, fractures, poisoning, frostbite and other emergencies.
First aid is a set of urgent measures aimed at saving a person’s life. An accident, a sharp attack of illness, poisoning – in these and other emergencies, competent first aid is needed.
According to the law, first aid is not medical – it is provided before the arrival of doctors or the delivery of the victim to the hospital. First aid can be provided by any person who is at a critical moment next to the victim. For some categories of citizens, first aid is an official duty. We are talking about police officers, traffic police and the Ministry of Emergency Situations, military personnel, firefighters.
First aid is an elementary but very important skill. In an emergency, he can save someone’s life. Introducing 10 Basic First Aid Skills.
First aid algorithm
In order not to get confused and competently provide first aid, it is important to observe the following sequence of actions:
Make sure that you are not in danger and that you are not in danger when giving first aid.
Ensure the safety of the victim and others (for example, remove the victim from a burning car).
Check for signs of life (pulse, breathing, pupil reaction to light) and consciousness in the victim. To check breathing, it is necessary to throw back the victim’s head, bend over to his mouth and nose and try to hear or feel breathing. To detect the pulse, it is necessary to put the fingertips on the victim’s carotid artery. To assess consciousness, it is necessary (if possible) to take the victim by the shoulders, gently shake and ask a question.
Call specialists: 112 – from a mobile phone, from a city phone – 03 (ambulance) or 01 (rescuers).
Provide emergency first aid. Depending on the situation, this may be:
- restoration of airway patency;
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation;
- stopping bleeding and other activities.
Provide the victim with physical and psychological comfort, wait for the arrival of specialists.
Artificial lung ventilation (ALV) is the introduction of air (or oxygen) into the respiratory tract of a person in order to restore natural ventilation of the lungs. Refers to elementary resuscitation measures.
Typical situations requiring mechanical ventilation:
- car accident;
- water accident;
- electric shock and others.
There are various types of ventilation. Mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-nose artificial respiration is considered the most effective non-specialist in first aid.
If, upon examination of the victim, natural respiration is not detected, artificial ventilation of the lungs must be carried out immediately.
Mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration technique
Keep the upper airway clear. Turn the victim’s head to one side and use your finger to remove mucus, blood, and foreign objects from the mouth. Check the victim’s nasal passages and clean them if necessary.
Tilt the victim’s head back while holding the neck with one hand.
Do not change the position of the victim’s head in case of spinal injury!
Place a tissue, handkerchief, cloth, or gauze over the victim’s mouth to protect yourself from infections. Pinch the victim’s nose with your thumb and forefinger. Take a deep breath, press your lips tightly to the victim’s mouth. Exhale into the victim’s lungs.
The first 5-10 exhalations should be quick (in 20-30 seconds), then 12-15 exhalations per minute.
Watch the movement of the victim’s chest. If the victim’s chest rises when breathing in air, then you are doing everything right.